Test 2 Environmental Science

Term Definition
deposition controlled by distance from the source, loss of transport "power"
deposition caused by: reduction of slope and decrease in discharge
normal (traditional) water body deposition thinner with distance and finer-sized with distance
density current "turbidity current" underflow along the bottom of the lake
density current energy of current due to density difference
geological erosion erosion under natural or undisturbed conditions
accelerated erosion increased rate of erosion over/above the geological rateex: mining, urbanization, agricultural activity
air pollutant foreign matter in the atmosphere
types of air pollutants particulate matter and chemicals
sources of foreign matter natural – NOT considered a pollutanthuman activity – considered a pollutant
natural sources of foreign matter dust, volcanic eruption, wildfire
human sources of foreign matter burning fossil fuels, nuclear, mining
chemical pollutants smog, haze, fallout, washout
smog both chemical and particulate pollutants over an urban area
haze lower level, mainly particulate matter
fallout particles that settle outside the atmosphere and fall to the ground – "dry fall"
washout brought out of the atmosphere by rainfall – "well fall"
2 types of smog industrial and photochemical
industrial smog results in acid rain/greenhouse gas emissions
photochemical smog chemical reactions occurring in polluted air through the action of sunlight on pollutant gases to produce new compounds or gases
Sudbury, Ontario, Canada opened in 1902, worlds 2nd tallest nickel producer and smokestack, sulfur released into air when smelting nickel-copper ore
L.A. smog factors ocean currents, air circulation patterns, topography, and climate
Clean Air Act of 1970 beginning of first wave of strict policies that actually worked, legislation created to address air pollution, goal was to achieve levels above historic levels
Clean Air Act criteria pollutants carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxide (NOx), ozone (O3), sulfur dioxide (SO2), particulate matter (PM), and lead (Pb)
N I M B Y (Not In My BackYard) public reaction about keeping environmentally bad "stuff" away from wealthier neighborhoods
climate change change in Earth's operating systems, affects every environment on Earth
factors in climate change temp change, change in precipitation, and changes in sea level
5 impacts of climate change on humans health impacts, agriculture impacts, forest impacts, water resource impacts, and coastal area impacts – extra: species and natural area impacts
health impacts increase in weather related deaths, increase and spread of infectious diseases, increase of air quality respiratory illness, increase in radiation damage
agriculture impacts decrease in crop yields, increase in irrigation demand
forest impacts changes in forest composition, shift in geographic range of forests, decrease in forest health and productivity
water resource impacts decrease in water quality, southwest USA will, changes in water supply
coastal area impacts increase in erosion of beaches, increase in flooding, increase in costs to defend costal communities
species and natural area impacts shifts in ecological zones, loss of habitat and species diversity
5 theories blamed for climate change astronomical, atmospheric changes, geophysical, land/water changes, glaciological
atmosphere stratification earth up:troposphere (tropospause)stratosphere (stratopause)mesosphere (mesopause)thermosphere
dynamic equilibrium an equilibrium state can be maintained as fluctuations are balanced around a constantly changing system condition
quasi equilibrium a state of near equilibrium
equifinality whereby similar final states may be derived in different ways from diverse origins
feedback part of the output of a system may act as input to another system and regulate the system either by intensifying or opposing the direction of the system
relaxation time time taken to realize equilibrium in a system during change from on equilibrium to another one
threshold a condition characterizing the transition from one system to another
system a set of objects together with the relationships between the objects and between the attributes
short wave radiation 32% reflected by clouds, ground, and scattered – 68% absorbed by clouds, ground, and atmosphere
long wave radiation re-radiates short wave radiation
astronomical climate changes: Milankovitch Cycles axial wobble, variation of tilt, variation of orbit
atmospheric changes: Greenhouse Effect carbon dioxide, suspended dust, ozone, water vapor
geophysical changes continental drift, polar wandering
land/water changes ocean currents, solar warming of ocean waters
glaciological changes surging glaciers
limits of climate change dynamics on glacial processes diminishes exponentially as we go back in time, temperature plays a KEY role, ice forming processes are altered or short-circuited by other dynamics, other factors complicate the picture of climate change and glacial dynamics

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *