Psych Test 5

Term Definition
Sex Biological category of male or female – defined by physical differences in genetic composition and in reproductive anatomy and function
Gender the cultural, social, and psychological meanings that are associated with masculinity and femininity.
Gender roles the behaviors, attitudes, and personality traits – designated as either masculine or feminine in a given culture
Gender identity a person's psychological sense of being male or female
Sexual orientation refers to the direction of emotional and erotic attraction toward members of the opposite sex, the same sex, or both sexes.
Gender-role stereotypes beliefs and expectations people hold about the typical characteristics, preferences, and behaviors of men and women.
Social learning theory of gender roles social learning theory is how children form their own gender roles argues that gender roles are learned through reinforcement, punishment, and modeling.
Gender related differences in personality differences in abilities, how men and women are supposed to act, gender stereotypes
Cognitive abilities verbal, reading, writing skills, spatial skills, math skills
Sexual attitudes and behaviors Men and women do not perceive themselves to be different, people are too quick to educate gender difference with gender efficiency, no single finding will apply to all men and women, overlap between the two groups
Paraphilia non-traditional sex behaviors – a person's sexual gratification depends on unusual sexual experience, object, or fantasy
Exhibitionism exposing genitals to shocked strangers
Frotteurism sexual arousal when touching and rubbing up non-consenting persons
Fetishism sexual arousal in response to inanimated objects
Transvestic cross dressing
Pedophilia sexual arousal with pre-puberty children
Voyeurism sexual arousal from observing unsuspecting children
Sexual sadism sexual arousal by inflicting psychological or physical suffering to another
Sexual masochism sexual arousal by being humiliated, beaten, bound, or made to suffer
developmental psychology study of how people change physically, mentally, and socially over the lifespan
chromosomes a long, threadlike structure composed of twisted parallel strands of DNA; found in the nucleus of a cell
DNA deoxyribonucleic acid – the chemical basis of heredity; carries the genetic instructions of the cell
Genes the basic unit of heredity that directs the development of a particular characteristic; the individual unit of DNA instructions on a chromosome
Genotype underlying genetic makeup of a particular organism, including the genetic instructions for traits that are not actually displayed
Phenotype the observable traits or characteristics of an organism as determined by the interaction of genetics and environmental factors
Sex chromosomes Chromosomes designated as X or Y that determine biological sex
Temperament Inborn predispositions to consistently behave and react in a certain way
Attachment The emotional bond that forms between an infant and caregivers, especially with parents
Piaget proposed a theory of cognitive development with four distinct cognitive stages
Four stages Sensorimotor, Preoperational, Concrete operational, Formal operational
Sensorimotor (0-2 years)
Preoperational (2-7 years)
Concrete Operational (7-11 years)
Formal operational (12+ years)
Object permanence the understanding that objects continue to exist even if they cannot see them
Symbolic thought the ability to use words, images, and symbols to represent the world
Egocentrism the inability to take another person's perspective or point of view
Conservation the understanding that two equal quantities remain equal even though the form or appearance is rearranged, as long as nothing is added or subtracted
Social psychology the branch of psychology that studies how people think, feel, and behave in social situations
Social cognition study of how people think about the social world
Social influence the study of the effects of situational factors and other people on an individual's behavior
Person perception refers to the mental processes we use to form judgments and draw conclusions about the characteristics of others
Social norms the rules or expectations for appropriate behavior in a particular social situation
Social categorization the mental process of categorizing people into groups or categories on the basis of their shared characteristics
Social categories Age, gender, occupation, race, and appearance
Implicit personality theory network of assumptions or beliefs about the relationship among various types of people, traits, and behaviors
Attitude a learned tendency to evaluate some object, person, or issue in a particular way; such evaluations may be positive, negative, or ambivalent
3 basic components of attitudes Cognitive, Affective, Behavioral component
Cognitive dissonance unpleasant state of psychological tension or arousal that occurs when 2 thoughts or perceptions are inconsistent
Prejudice a negative attitude toward people who belong to a specific social group
Stereotype a cluster of characteristics that are associated with all members of a specific social group, often including qualities that are unrelated to the objective criteria that define the group
In-group a social group to which one belongs
Out-group a social group to which one does not belong
Out-group homogeneity effect the tendency to see members of out-groups as very similar to one another
In-group bias the tendency to judge the behavior of in-group members favorably and out-group members unfavorably
Ethnocentrism the belief that one's own culture or ethnic group is superior to all others and the related tendency to use one's own culture as a standard by which to judge other cultures
Robbers Cave Experiment Muzafer Sherif, accounts for group conflict, negative prejudices, and stereotypes as being the result of competition between groups for desired resources
Jigsaw Classrooms a method of organizing classroom activity that makes students dependent on each other to succeed. It breaks classes into groups and breaks assignments into pieces that the group assembles to complete the puzzle
Conformity the tendency to adjust one's behavior, attitudes, or beliefs to group norms in response to real or imagined group pressure
Normative social influence behavior that is motivated by the desire to gain social acceptance and approval
Informational social influence behavior that is motivated by the desire to be correct
Obedience the performance of an action in response to the direct orders of an authority or person of higher status
Miligrams study measured the willingness of study participants to obey an authority figure who instructed them to perform acts that conflicted with their personal conscience.
Kitty Genovese Bystander effect
Bystander effect occurs when the presence of others discourages an individual from intervening in an emergency situation. Murdered and her neighbors did nothing to help her
Altruism helping another person with no expectation of personal reward or benefit
Prosocial behavior any behavior that helps another whether the underlying motive is self-serving or selfless
Diffusion of responsibility the phenomenon in which the presence of other people makes it less likely that any individual will help someone in distress because the obligation to intervene is shared among all of the onlookers

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