Praxis 0354/5354 Praxis II Special Education Core Knowledge and Application

Question Answer
Autistic children are somtimes very sensitive to smell, sound and ____________ touch
Child Disintegrative Disorder which causes seizures in children as well as loss of motor, social and language skills is also known as ____________ Heller Syndrome
This type of Down's Syndrome accounts for more than 95 percent of the cases Trisomy 21
This disorder occurs when a child cannot understand what is being said to him or her Receptive language disorder
The ability or lack of ability to view an object already assembled or in pieces and then construct the object based upon what the person has seen is called Visuospatial construction
Viewed as the universal standard intelligence test used in most often by School Psychologists and is used for children from age 6 to 16 years of age Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-III
Used in neuropsychological evaluation, specifically with regard to brain dysfunction. Used in schools as a part of placement evaluations for children who are developmentally disabled. Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-III
Refers to inductive and deductive reasoning, skills that are thought to be largely influenced by neurological and biological factors Fluid Intelligence
Refers to knowledge and skills that are primarily influenced by environmental and sociocultural factors. Crystallized Intelligence
An intelligence test for children aged 3 years through 4 years 3 months consisting of a Verbal scale subtest and a Performance scale subtest Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised
"the general ability of an individual to perform complex mental processing that involves conceptualization and transformation of information" General Conceptual Ability
Individually administered battery of cognitive and achievement tests for children and adolescents aged 2y 6m to 17y 11m. This test is divided into three levels: Lower Preschool, Upper Preschool, and School-Age. Differential Ability Scales
Measures five factors of cognitive ability: Fluid Reasoning, Knowledge, Quantitative Reasoning, Visual-Spatial Processing, and Working Memory. Tested in two separate domains, verbal and nonverbal. Stanford Binet
Similar to the I.Q. score, this score is based on the chronological age of the test subject. Standard Age Score
This three stage model employs the term SNAP to refer to students that are in need of alternative programming or disability services Minneapolis Model
A comprehensive, norm-referenced assessment of adaptive and maladaptive behaviors used to determine an individual's level of functioning in key behavior areas. Woodcock-Johnson Scales of Independent Behavior
Infection happens before birth, most common late-occurring signs is hearing loss, and a small number of vision impairment. Cytomegalovirus Infection (CMV)
T. Gondii parasite causes this disease; weakens the immune system, may develop disabling complications, including hearing loss, mental disability and blindness. Toxoplasmosis
Test measures the ability to cope with environmental changes, to learn new everyday skills and to demonstrate independence. Five domains: Communication, Daily Living Skills, Socialization, Motor Skills, and Maladatpive Behavior. Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale (VABS)
Infection caused by touching cat feces, or their litter boxes, touching cutting boards, counters and utensils used in the preparation of raw or undercooked meat, fruits and vegetables. Toxoplasmosis
A total depletion in the level of oxygen, an extreme form of hypoxia or "low oxygen." Anoxia
A condition where the tissues are not oxygenated adequately, usually due to an insufficient concentration of oxygen in the blood. Hypoxia
"Any device that can be sued to modified by a disabled person in a manner that will allow him or her to accomplish or perform required or desired day to day goals or tasks." Assistive Technology
Involves the student making observable and measureable responses to instruction as it is happening. Measures the frequency of student responses. Active Student Response
Stage of skill is early identification and understanding of the skill to be learned. Learner develops an in-depth understanding of the skill to be acquired; watching, thinking, analyzing, reasoning, judging, and visualizing. Cognitive Stage of Learning
Stage of skill focuses on the idea of practicing. Associative Stage of Learning
Stage of skill revolves around executing a skill automatically without having to stop and think about what to do next or how to do it. Individual can perform the skill fluently and instinctively, outside influences do not affect the outcome. Autonomous Stage of Learning
Thinking strategies that empower the reader to have a reflective cognitive learning style that renders interactive and meaningful dialogue between the reader and the printed page. Compensatory Approach
Best suited for cooperative or collaborative work, where a small group of students works independently of the rest of the class but the students within the group interact frequently with one another. Cluster Arrangment
Children are taught letter-sound relationships during the reading of connected text. Embedded Phonics
Children learn how to convert letters or letter combinations into sounds, and then how to blend the sounds together to form recognizable words. Synthetic Phonics
Children learn to analyze letter-sounds relationships in previously learned words. They do not pronounce sounds in isolation. Analytic Phonics
Children learn to use parts of word families they know to identify words they don't know that have similar parts. Analogy Phonics
Children learn to segment words into phonemes and to make words by writing letters for phonemes. Phonics through spelling
Children learn to identify the sound of the letter or letters before the first vowel (the onset) in a one-syllable word and the sound of the remaining part of the word (the rime). Onset-Rime Phonics
Teachers help kids see the connections and relevance between subjects. A student-centered approach to teaching. Integrated Curriculum
Type of instruction in which authors' original narrative and expository works are used as the core for experiences to support children in developing literacy. Literature-based Instruction
Math strategy that is employed in elementary schools to help the students learn, understand and remember the addition facts of digits that make a total of ten. Make a Ten Strategy
Interactive instruction between teachers and students. Teacher introduces new learning, practices with students, then students eventually complete lesson independently. Guided Practice
Timed test taking 2.5 minutes to read an entire reading selection that contains blanks. First sentence and topic sentence does not contain blanks. Maze Fluency
Method used to help students understand the way they learn; help students think about their thinking. Metacognitive Strategies
An instructional practice used to improve student engagement by providing diverse presentations, and experiences of the content so that students use different senses and different skills during a single lesson. Multiple Modalities
A strategy used to help kids explore how sets of things are related to one another; completing and analyzing a grid, make predictions, and master important concepts. Semantic Feature Analysis
Instruction that targets the foundational skills your child needs to master by breaking tasks down into smaller chunks, reteaching skills, and using a different ways of teaching, and a focus on repetition of a specific skill. Remedial Approach
An instructional approach intended primarily for use with persons who have difficulty with reading, spelling, and writing of the sort associated with dyslexia. Orton-Gillingham Approach
Carefully though out, builds upon prior learning, is strategic building from simple to complex, and is designed before activities and lessons are planned. Systematic Instruction
A developmental disorder that affects many parts of the body; mild to moderate intellectual disability or learning problems, unique personality characteristics, distinctive facial features, and heart and blood vessel (cardiovascular) problems. Williams Syndrome
A clinical instrument (psychological diagnostic test) for assessing cognitive development which incorporates several recent development in both psychology theory and statistical methodology. Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children
A measurement defined by the US federal NCLB Act that allows the US Dept. of Education to determine how every public school and school district in the country is performing academically according to results on standardized tests. Adequte Yearly Progress (AYP)
A report of targets for the upcoming year and a preliminary target for the following year. Annual Performance Report (APR)
Regulatory materials and requirements on the administration of grants and agreements, protection of human, etc. Education Department General Administrative Regulations (EDGAR)
Section of the DOE responsible for enforcement of Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964; Title IX of the Education amendment Act of 1972; and Title II of the Americans with Disabilities Act. Office for Civil Rights (OCR)
A national legislation that mandates that all schools test on a yearly basis to show the continued improvement of the children in order to retain federal financial funding. No Child Left Behind (NCLB)
Test uses nonverbal responses which makes it suitable for students with intellectual disabilities. Leiter International Performance Scale
US Supreme Court held that a separate education for African-American children was not an equal education, providing an important precedent for an integrated public education for all citizens. Brown v. Board of Education 1954
Established FAPE. PARC v. Commonweath of Pennsylvania 1972
Law removes the terms "mental retardation" and mentally retarded" from federal health, education and labor policy and replaces them with people first language, "Intellectual disability". Rosa's Law 2010
Section 504 of this Act provides protection for persons with disabilities. Rehabilitation Act of 1973
Act predecessor to IDEA. EHCA
Cedric, an African American student classified as having ID based upon one IQ test, the case banned discrimination in testing and disability determinations based on IQ test alone. Larry P. v. Riles
1993 case that held that a Down's Syndrome student had the right to be mainstreamed in a regular classroom for as much time as possible. Established inclusion with supplementary aids and services. Oberti v. Board of Education
Court ruled that clean intermittent catheterized was not a medical service, since a physician did not have to perform the procedure, and was instead a related service. Irving Independent School District v. Tatro
Rule established by the Tatro case that stated that schools had to provide related services unless the services required the presence of a medical doctor. Medical Exception Rule
CA school board violated the EAHCA, when it indefinitely suspended a student for violent and disruptive behavior that was related to his disability. No more than 10 days, "Stay-Put" and provide services. Honig v. Doe 1988
Court ruled that a parent can be a "party aggrieved" under the statue and that sections referring to the rights of the child need to be read to exclude the parent. Winkelman v Parma City School District 2006
1979 Riles case was based on this type of bias Test
Nature and cost of providing certain IDEA "related services" is not determinative of whether their financial burdens must be met, potential financial burdens shall inform any decision governing their provision. Needed care outweighted burdens. Cedar Rapids Community School District v. Garret F.
Party bringing the suit bears the burden of proof, whether that party is the parents or the school system. Shaffer v. Weast2005
This condition that results from Rett syndrome causes girls to lose fine and gross motor skills, speech and language and eyesight. Apraxia
A very serious heart condition causes an irregular heartbeat which can eventually stop beating altogether. Dysrthymia
Observation learning theory proposed by Albert Bandura
Xeorphthalmia is a condition that causes Blindness
Blindness in children can be cuased by deficiencies in Vitamin A
Wall-eyed or cross-eyed is another term for Strabismus
Another name for lazy eye is ___________ not correctable and is not due to any eye disease. The brain does not fully acknowledge the images seen. Amblyopia
Usher Syndrome can cause Deafness and Blindness called retinitis pigmentosa or RP
Affects children between 6 and 8 years of age. Seizures originate in the rolandic area of the brain which controls the face. Also called Partial Seizures. Benign Rolandic Epilepsy
An aura occurs at beginning of seizure; changes the person's level of consciousness, involuntary movements called automatisms. Person will be confused or disoriented and have hard time speaking or swallowing. Complex Partial Seizure
Complex partial seizures begin in the ____________ lobe of the brain are usually longer in duration. Temporal
A convulsion in a child that by be caused by a spike in body temperature, often from an infection. Usually harmless and typically don't indicate an ongoing problem. Febrile Seizure
Also known as Grand Mal seizure, features a loss of consciousness and violent muscle contractions. Caused by abnormal electrical activity thoughout the brain, triggered by other health problems (low blood sugar, high fever, or stroke). General Tonic-Clonic Seizure
Focal weakness in a part of the body after a seizure; typically appendages localized to either the left or right side of the body. Usually subsides completely within 48 hours. Todd Paralysis
A report of performance on a requirement of special education law. LEA must determine eligibility within 60 days after receiving parental consent for administering tests and other evaluation materials. Indicator 11
Type of meeting is required by law fore a disable child can be suspended or expelled from school for any length period of time. Manifestation Determination Meeting
"friend of the court", name for a brief filed with the court by someone who is not a party to the case. Amicus Curiae
Provision that parents can invoke to assure that their child receives educational assistance pending the outcome of a hearing. Stay Put Provision
Face to face interaction, supportive gestures, positive interdependence, individual and group accountability and group processing are the five elements of _____________ Cooperative Learning Approach
The four stages of attention, retention, initiation, and motivation involve _____________ learning. Observational
Profound IQ below 20-25
Mild IQ 50-55 to 70
Moderate IQ 35-40 to 50-55
Severe IQ 20-25 to 35-40
The DSM which noted the change in the term from mental retardation to intellectual disability is published by American Psychiatric Association (APA)
Given to children of 2-17 years of age consisting of several cognitive and achievement tests that are divided in three levels. Differenial Ability Scales (DAS)
This group of cognitive tests measures and focuses on conceptual and reasoning abilities the results of this component results in or produces a composite standard score which is called The General Conceptual Ability (GCA) score
A language and speech treatment that allows the child to learn desired concepts in his or her everyday or simulated environment. Milieu Teaching Strategy
Measures a person's social skills, and can be administered to anyone between infancy and 19 years old. Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale (VABS)
IDEA definition of EBD (a) an inability to learn that can't be explained by intellectual, sensory, or health factors (b) inability to build or maintain satisfactory interpersonal relationships with peers and teachers (c) inappropriate types of behavior or feelings under normal
Emotional disturbance includes _____________________ but does not apply to children who are socially maladjusted, unless it is determined that they have emotional disturbance Schizophrenia
Court ruling resulted in the decision that all children must be evaluated in their native language; all future students being assessed for special education needed to be tested in their primary language or use a nonverbal assessment. Diana v. State Board of Education 1970
IDEA was signed into law and later reauthorized through a second revision in what years? 1990 signed into law, 2004 revision and reauthorized as IDEIA
How was the training of special education teachers changed by the NCLB of 2002? They must be highly qualified (certified or licensed in their area of special education), show proof of a specific level of professional development int he core subjects that they teach.
NCLB affected students in Limited English Proficiency (LEP) by Requiring these students to demonstrate English Language Proficiency before a High School Diploma is granted.
Specific change of language in the IDEA "Handicapped" changed to "with disabilities, "children" became "individuals"
Major life activities under Section 504 are: caring for oneself, performing manual tasks, walking, seeing, hearing, speaking, breathing, learning and working.
What determines entitlement of protection under Section 504? (1) has a physical or mental impairment which substantially limits one or more of that person's major life activities, (2) has a record of such impairment, or (3) is regarded as having such an impairment.
PL94-142 Education for All Handicapped Children Act 1975 signed by President Ford
PL101-476 IDEA
Transition became a right in PL 101-476

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