Question Answer
500 and ended in 1500 CE Date of Middle Ages
end of roman Empire – unemployment was? roughly high
used what to pacify the people? bread & circuses
Fall of rome only institution left the church
marks the end of the Ancient world and beginning of the Renaissance Fall of Rome
mark the end of the Middle Ages and the beginning of the Modern Era Renaissance
Why is the church important in the Middle Ages? 1. only source of education 2. only source of social welfare3. all government services come from the church4. source of salvation
barbarian tribe that would settle what is today known as ? France
led frankish warriors to defeat the muslims Charles "Martel"
led Frankish warriors to defeat the Muslims at? Battle of Tours
ended Muslim expansion in Europe Battle of Tours
Charles the Great Charlemagne
grand-son of Charles the "Hammer" Martel Charlemagne
Charlemagne crowned emperor of the Romans by who? Pope Leo III
Significance of this? 1. he is the successor of the Roman people 2. first sign of life till the fall of Rome 3. lays the ground work for future power struggles between Pope & King
officials who keep control of local provinces missi dominici
What did Charlemagne do as emperor? – he created a unified Christian empire- promoted education & learning- converted conquered people – encourage the knowledge of Latin & literacy
Muslim trading post timboktu
empire of christianity christendom
What happens after Charlemagne dies? he empire divides and falls apart
Why is Charlemagne empire signif.? largest empire between Rome and Napoleonextended Christianityset up a constant government since Fall of Romeestablished relations btwn Pope & State
3 groups who continued to invade Charlemagne's empire after his death Continued Muslim attacksMagyarsVikings
people on horseback for wealth & food, hungry; robin hood like magyars
raid on boat vikings
political & social, decentralized (no one leader), based on mutual obligation between land owners & men of war feudalism
feudalism developed in response to the dangers of the invasion of the ? Muslims, Magyars, and vikings
in feudalism land is _? power
The hierarchy of feudalism church/pope, king, powerful lords, lesser lords, knights, peasants & townspeople
ultimate lord liege
partial of land given from a noble to a man of war in return of military service and loyalty fief
person who receives land and provides military service; knight Vassal
highly trained professional soldiers, spend whole life training knights
unwritten agreement between a vassal and the Lord including oath of fealty (loyalty) Feudal contract
Major problem of Feudalism? too complex & unstable
To gain more power within nobility, you need to gain land by war or marriage
people who dedicate their entire lives to fighting "Men of War"
ALL nobility was united by the institution of ? knighthood
knighthood always observed the ? code of chivalry
code of chivalry stressed what virtues? loyalty to Godloyalty to their Lordcouragecourtesy to women
ONLY applied to nobility, and decreed that knights should only fight for honor and not for wealth code of chivalry
Noblewomen had 2 choice? marriage or become a nun
noblewomen had a responsibility as? head of the household, and acted as a military commander of the household while husband was away
self-contained economic unit of early medieval life, operated on a system of reciprocal rights, and obligations based on custom Manor
the economic backbone of feudal system manor system
like the feudal system the manor system was based on mutual obligation
peasants who are legally tied to the land they live on; don't own land, no freedom serfs
because they were bound to land they could not? lawfully leave the land where they were born, but could be KICKED OUT
What is typically found on a manor? fieldschurchcastlevillageblacksmithmillspasturesmeadowsorchardsriver (?)
England develops the first centralized monarchy; limited power
William the conqueror beat who? Where? Harold; Battle of Hastings
Will created a strong centralized monarchy by ? giving land to his soldiers to make them loyal
will conduct a census for? called the? tax purposes; Domesday Book
What was the purpose of the Domesday book? a more efficient government
King John tried to ? raise taxes, but nobility refused and forced him to sign the Magna Carta
What did the Magna Carta do? limit the power of the monarchy, puts king under English law; requires him to go through nobles
Magna Carta 1) nobles had rights2) monarchs must obey the lawrecognized townspeople's rights
The significance of the Magna Carta?wbo puts the first limit on executive power, meaning that not even the king was not above the law
the legislative body of England; use power to limit the king parliament
Two houses of the Parliament House of Lords and house of Commons
France developed into a centralized monarchy, but it is absolute
After Charlamagne who ruled the Capetians
over 400 years the Capetians expanded through marriage and war
Spain and Portugal will develop into centralized christian monarchies
fight to expel muslims from the Iberian pennisula Reconquista
the marriage of Ferdinand and Isabella united Spain and made it a powerful Christian country
religious wars fount by European Christians to win back the Holy Land crusades
Jerusalem and the surrounding territories Holy Land
church court tried of heresy inquistion
What the reasons that Christians joined crusade? Pope pardoned all sinsreligious zealwealth, land
the first crusade they won back Jerusalem
Who were the leaders of the 3rd crusade? Lionheart and Saladin
By the 4th crusade, Christians from western europe are attacking Christians from? the East
What were the positive outcomes of the crusades? 1. stimulated trade2. increases power of the monarchs3. exposed w europe to advanced Eastern culture4, curosity led to exploration
only institution to survive the fall of rome the church
all celebrations in a village included Christian holidays and holy days
worldly (non-religous) secular
How did the monks keep learning and culture alive through service and scholarship? – acted as hospitals & schools- gave food and lodging to travelers- copied texts and presented knowledge

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